Clinical Trials & Research

In a recent study published on the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers demonstrate that ultraviolet light-C (UV-C) effectively prevents airborne transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Study: UV-C Light Completely Blocks Highly Contagious Delta SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol Transmission in Hamsters. Image Credit: Nor Gal / Shutterstock.com Background Related Stories The primary mode of transmission
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Since December 2019, Wuhan, China, has been conducting influenza and related disease monitoring, and a number of cases of viral pneumonia have been discovered, all of which have been diagnosed as viral pneumonia or pulmonary infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated it a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) on January 12, 2020. The coronavirus Research Group dubbed
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New kidney research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine is raising concerns that long-term use of drugs commonly prescribed to treat high-blood pressure and heart failure could be contributing to kidney damage. Patients should continue taking the medications, which include the well-known and widely used ACE inhibitors, the researchers say. But the scientists
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Tertiary lymphoid structures are formations that occur outside of the lymphatic system. They contain immune cells and are similar in structure and function to lymph nodes and other lymphoid structures. However, little is known about how tertiary lymphoid structures form. In a new article published in Immunity, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers report on the molecular
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In the United States, maternal mortality rates remain higher than in comparable countries and racial disparities persist. While many countries have experienced improvements in maternal mortality rates, U.S. rates increased to an estimated 16.9 pregnancy-associated deaths per 100,000 live births between 2006 and 2016 and currently has a higher maternal mortality ratio than more than
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Mechanical engineering and materials science professor David Needham has shown that a slight increase in solution pH might be all it takes to turn a metabolic inhibiting drug, traditionally used to treat gut parasites, into a promising prophylactic/preventative nasal spray and early treatment throat spray for COVID-19. The results appear online on December 28 in
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A recent randomized clinical trial from the United States (US) shows how daily use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) probiotic may protect against symptom development in instances when it is used as post-exposure prophylaxis within seven days after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). Study: Daily Lactobacillus Probiotic versus Placebo in COVID-19-Exposed
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When coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first arose, it spread across the world very rapidly, and many countries were forced to enact costly and restrictive measures in order to reduce the transmission rate. These included mandatory face masks, social distancing and even full lockdowns/stay-at-home orders. Most countries were worried that high numbers of cases could overwhelm
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A new Cornell University study uses queuing theory to examine how often pairs of shoppers might overlap in a supermarket – an approach that could be used to predict the transmission of COVID-19, and guide strategies to reduce its spread. Jamol Pender, associate professor of operations research and information engineering, specializes in queuing theory –
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A team of investigators have discovered a genomic variant that may help clinicians predict which patients will experience cardiotoxicity from a widely used chemotherapy drug, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Circulation. The findings underscore the significance of identifying reliable predictive genomic biomarkers and their potential to improve the course of treatment plans
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers developed the K18-hACE2 transgenic (K18-hACE2) mouse with hACE2 expression directed by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 (K18) promoter to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‑CoV) pathogenesis. The mice were infected with the Pango B lineage, Delta, and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* pre-print server, researchers investigated the potency of trimeric human nephrocystin SH3, TriSb92, a domain-derived antibody, against a conserved region in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs). Study: Intranasal inhibitor blocks Omicron and other variants of
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* pre-print server, a team of researchers demonstrated the neutralization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant by select antibodies and used cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures to reveal structural mechanisms for the maintenance of potent neutralization against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). Study: Structural
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In a recent study posted to the medRxiv* preprint server, researchers determined the neutralizing antibody (nAb) levels against various strains of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sera collected from individuals with varying degrees of immunity against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Study: Three doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine confer neutralising
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Selenoproteins have the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine incorporated into their polypeptide chain. This is the primary mechanism by which selenium can help biological functions. There are at least 25 genes encoding for selenoproteins in humans, some of which are essential in development. They are also known to play important roles in disease pathogenesis. GPX 1-4,
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A study using artificial intelligence to analyze radiographs from thousands of patients after hip replacement surgery redefines the acetabular “safe zone” to help avoid the risk of dislocation, reports The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio in partnership with Wolters Kluwer. Two key angles – anteversion and
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A new medRxiv* preprint study suggests that the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is greater with a three-dose regimen than a two-dose regimen. Administering a Pfizer-BioNTech booster shot produced a 1.7-fold increase in IgG levels one after one month compared to IgG levels one month after the second dose. Additionally,
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A new medRxiv* preprint study awaiting peer review found that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was correlated with a 30% lower risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization than the AstraZeneca two-dose vaccines. The findings were robust for at least six months when Delta was the dominant strain, showing that there were no differences in waning immunity between
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A new nationally representative study published online in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease found an abrupt decline in the prevalence of cognitive impairment among American adults aged 65 and older compared to the same age group a decade earlier. In 2008, 12.2% of older Americans reported serious cognitive problems. In 2017, the percentage had declined
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Researchers in the Pirbright Institute, UK, have experimentally proved that virus-related double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the sites of viral RNA synthesis are associated with one another. In addition, they confirm the location of viral synthesis that exists ‘inside’ the membrane-bound compartments within the cell. Study: Coronavirus RNA Synthesis Takes Place within Membrane-Bound Sites. Image Credit:
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A team of scientists from the UK has recently demonstrated that severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with pronounced changes in the ileal Peyer’s Patches, which could be responsible for the suppression of intestinal immune responses and subsequent disruption of microbiota homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Study: Disrupted Peyer’s patch microanatomy in COVID-19
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Preliminary evidence from South Africa suggests the Omicron variant is highly transmissible and is more capable of causing infections in vaccinated people. There is also evidence of the Omicron variant causing reinfections, suggesting naturally acquired immunity is also less effective against the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the genomic surveillance efforts
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